About Gas Turbines
What are Gas turbines ?
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. Gas turbine may also refer to just the turbine element.
Energy is released when air is mixed with fuel and ignited in the combustor. The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades, spinning the turbine, and, cyclically, powering the compressor. Finally, the gases are passed through a nozzle, generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by expansion back to atmospheric pressure.
Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators, and even tanks.
Theory of operation
Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle, in which air is compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant pressure, and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure.
In practice, friction, and turbulence cause:
a) non-isentropic compression - for a given overall pressure ratio, the compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal.
b) non-isentropic expansion - although the turbine temperature drop necessary to drive the compressor is unaffected, the associated pressure ratio is greater, which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work.
c) pressure losses in the air intake, combustor and exhaust - reduces the expansion available to provide useful work.
As with all cyclic heat engines, higher combustion temperature means greater efficiency. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel, nickel, ceramic, or other materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. Considerable engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. Most turbines also try to recover exhaust heat, which otherwise is wasted energy. Recuperators are heat exchangers that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air, prior to combustion. Combined cycle designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. And combined heat and power (co-generation) uses waste heat for hot water production.
Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion piston engines. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the shaft/compressor/turbine/alternator-rotor assembly (see image above), not counting the fuel system.
More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades, movable stator blades, and a vast system of complex piping, combustors and heat exchangers.
As a general rule, the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s) needs to be to maintain tip speed. Turbine blade tip speed determines the maximum pressure that can be gained, independent of the size of the engine. Jet engines operate around 10,000 rpm and micro turbines around 100,000 rpm.
Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design. Traditionally, they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings, or oil-cooled ball bearings. This is giving way to foil bearings, which have been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary power units.
Auxiliary power units
Auxiliary power units (APUs) are small gas turbines designed for auxiliary power of larger machines, such as those inside an aircraft. They supply compressed air for aircraft ventilation (with an appropriate compressor design), start-up power for larger jet engines, and electrical and hydraulic power. These are not to be confused with the auxiliary propulsion units, also abbreviated APUs, aboard the gas-turbine-powered Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates. The Perrys' APUs are large electric motors that provide maneuvering help in close waters, or emergency backup if the gas turbines are not working.
Gas turbines for electrical power production
Industrial gas turbines range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous, complex systems. They can be particularly efficient — up to 60% — when waste heat from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration. They can also be run in a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating, or drives an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. A cogeneration configuration can be over 90% efficient. The power turbines in the largest industrial gas turbines operate at 3,000 or 3,600 rpm to match the AC power grid frequency and to avoid the need for a reduction gearbox. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure.
Simple cycle gas turbines in the power industry require smaller capital investment than coal, nuclear or even combined cycle natural gas plants and can be designed to generate small or large amounts of power. Also, the actual construction process can take as little as several weeks to a few months, compared to years for base load power plants. Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within minutes, supplying power during peak demand. Since they are less efficient than combined cycle plants, they are usually used as peaking power plants, which operate anywhere from several hours per day to a couple dozen hours per year, depending on the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region. In areas with a shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity, a gas turbine power plant may regularly operate during most hours of the day and even into the evening. A typical large simple cycle gas turbine may produce 100 to 300 megawatts of power and have 35 to 40% thermal efficiency. The most efficient turbines have reached 46% efficiency.
Also known as:
MicroTurbine® (registered trademark of Capstone Turbine Corporation)
Turbogenerator® (registered tradename of Honeywell Power Systems, Inc.)
Microturbines are becoming wide spread for distributed power and combined heat and power applications. They range from handheld units producing less than a kilowatt to commercial sized systems that produce tens or hundreds of kilowatts.
Part of their success is due to advances in electronics, which allows unattended operation and interfacing with the commercial power grid. Electronic power switching technology eliminates the need for the generator to be synchronized with the power grid. This allows the generator to be integrated with the turbine shaft, and to double as the starter motor.
Microturbine systems have many advantages over reciprocating engine generators, such as higher power density (with respect to footprint and weight), extremely low emissions and few, or just one, moving part. Those designed with foil bearings and air-cooling operate without oil, coolants or other hazardous materials. Microturbines also have the advantage of having the majority of their waste heat contained in their relatively high temperature exhaust, whereas the waste heat of recriprocating engines is split between its exhaust and cooling system.  However, reciprocating engine generators are quicker to respond to changes in output power requirement and are usually slightly more efficient, although the efficiency of microturbines is increasing. Microturbines also lose more efficiency at low power levels than reciprocating engines.
They accept most commercial fuels, such as natural gas, propane, diesel and kerosene. They are also able to produce renewable energy when fueled with biogas from landfills and sewage treatment plants.
Microturbine designs usually consist of a single stage radial compressor, a single stage radial turbine and a recuperator. Recuperators are difficult to design and manufacture because they operate under high pressure and temperature differentials. Exhaust heat can be used for water heating, drying processes or absorption chillers, which create cold for air conditioning from heat energy instead of electric energy.
Typical microturbine efficiencies are 25 to 35%. When in a combined heat and power cogeneration system, efficiencies of greater than 80% are commonly achieved.
MIT started its millimeter size turbine engine project in the middle of the 1990's when Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Alan H. Epstein considered the possibility of creating a personal turbine which will be able to meet all the demands of a modern person's electrical needs, just like a large turbine can meet the electricity demands of a small city. According to Professor Epstein current commercial Li-ion rechargeable batteries deliver about 120-150 w-hr/kg. MIT's millimeter size turbine will deliver 500-700 whr/kg in the near term, rising to 1200-1500 whr/kg in the longer term
Advances in technology
Gas turbine technology has steadily advanced since its inception and continues to evolve; research is active in producing ever smaller gas turbines. Computer design, specifically CFD and finite element analysis along with material advances, has allowed higher compression ratios and temperatures, more efficient combustion, better cooling of engine parts and reduced emissions. On the emissions side, the challenge in technology is actually getting a catalytic combustor running properly in order to achieve single digit NOx emissions to cope with the latest regulations. Additionally, compliant foil bearings were commercially introduced to gas turbines in the 1990s. They can withstand over a hundred thousand start/stop cycles and eliminated the need for an oil system.
On another front, microelectronics and power switching technology have enabled commercially viable micro turbines for distributed and vehicle power.